finance

The healthcare field is the subject of a host of federal statutes, regulations, guidelines, interpretive information, and model guidance. There are a considerable number of statutes and regulations that have an impact on the delivery of healthcare services. A statute is legislative enactment that has been signed into law. A statute either directs someone to take action, grants authority to act in certain situations, or to refrain from doing so. Statutes are not self-enforcing. Someone must be authorized to do so to take action. A statute may authorize the Department of Health and Human Services to take action, and it is up to the department to implement the law. Regulations, or rules, are made by administrative personnel to whom legislatures have delegated such responsibilities. It is a tool for developing policies, procedures, and practice routines that track the expectations of regulatory agencies and departments. The statutory and regulatory requirements are subject to judicial interpretation.

A very important element of healthcare management is to understand the key regulatory environment. One government statute that effects patient healthcare is the Anti-Kickback Statute. The Medicare and Medicaid Patient Protection Act of 1987 (the “Anti-Kickback Statute”), has been enacted to prevent healthcare providers from inappropriately profiting from referrals. The government regards any type of incentive for a referral as a potential violation of this law because the opportunity to reap financial benefits may tempt providers to make referrals that are not medically necessary, thereby driving up healthcare costs and potentially putting patient’s health at risk. The Anti-Kickback statute is a criminal statute. Originally enacted almost 30 years ago, the statute prohibits any knowing or willful solicitation or acceptance of any type of remuneration to induce referrals for health services that are reimbursable by the Federal government. For example, a provider may not routinely waive a patient’s co-payment or deductible. The government would view this as an inducement for the patient to choose the provider for reasons other than medical benefit. While these prohibitions originally were limited to services reimbursed by the Medicare or Medicaid programs, recent legislation expanded the statute’s reach to any Federal healthcare program. Because the Anti-Kickback statute is a criminal statute, violations of it are considered felonies, with criminal penalties of up to $25,000 in fines and five years in prison. Routinely waiving copayments and deductibles violates the statute and ordinarily results in a sanction. However, a safe harbor has been created wherein a provider granting such a waiver based on a patient’s financial need would not be sanctioned. The enactment of the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) added another level of complexity to the Anti-Kickback statute and its accompanying safe harbors. HIPAA mandated that the OIG (Office of Inspector General) furnish advisory opinions to requesting providers that are either in an arrangement or contemplating an arrangement that may not fit squarely within the law. For a fee, the OIG would analyze the arrangement and determine whether it could violate the law and whether the OIG would impose sanctions …

Growing up it has always been said that one can raise capital or finance business with either its personal savings, gifts or loans from family and friends and this idea continue to persist in modern business but probably in different forms or terminologies.

It is a known fact that, for businesses to expand, it’s prudent that business owners tap financial resources and a variety of financial resources can be utilized, generally broken into two categories, debt and equity.

Equity financing, simply put is raising capital through the sale of shares in an enterprise i.e. the sale of an ownership interest to raise funds for business purposes with the purchasers of the shares being referred as shareholders. In addition to voting rights, shareholders benefit from share ownership in the form of dividends and (hopefully) eventually selling the shares at a profit.

Debt financing on the other hand occurs when a firm raises money for working capital or capital expenditures by selling bonds, bills or notes to individuals and/or institutional investors. In return for lending the money, the individuals or institutions become creditors and receive a promise the principal and interest on the debt will be repaid, later.

Most companies use a combination of debt and equity financing, but the Accountant shares a perspective which can be considered as distinct advantages of equity financing over debt financing. Principal among them are the fact that equity financing carries no repayment obligation and that it provides extra working capital that can be used to grow a company’s business.

Why opt for equity financing?

• Interest is considered a fixed cost which has the potential to raise a company’s break-even point and as such high interest during difficult financial periods can increase the risk of insolvency. Too highly leveraged (that have large amounts of debt as compared to equity) entities for instance often find it difficult to grow because of the high cost of servicing the debt.

• Equity financing does not place any additional financial burden on the company as there are no required monthly payments associated with it, hence a company is likely to have more capital available to invest in growing the business.

• Periodic cash flow is required for both principal and interest payments and this may be difficult for companies with inadequate working capital or liquidity challenges.

• Debt instruments are likely to come with clauses which contains restrictions on the company’s activities, preventing management from pursuing alternative financing options and non-core business opportunities

• A lender is entitled only to repayment of the agreed upon principal of the loan plus interest, and has to a large extent no direct claim on future profits of the business. If the company is successful, the owners reap a larger portion of the rewards than they would if they had sold debt in the company to investors in order to finance the growth.

• The larger a company’s debt-to-equity ratio, the riskier the company is considered by lenders and investors. Accordingly, a business …

What is a business structure?

A business structure relates to how the business is organised with regards to who makes the decisions and instructs which part of the business. Often drawn as a diagram, it shows the relationship between decision maker(s) and different departments within the business.

The entrepreneurial business structure

In the entrepreneurial business structure, any decision that needs to be made is made centrally, either by one person or at head office, the results of which are then communicated to workers. This is the most ‘rigid’ of organisational structures, as workers have little to no say or input in the decision-making process, instead having to just follow any orders that are issued.

The entrepreneurial business structure is most commonly found in sole traders with just a few employees, or in organisations which have to make decisions quickly such as publishing where there is often precious little time available to discuss things in meetings when there is a deadline that has to be met. In this instance, somebody has to make a decision quickly without having to discuss or justify it.

For a sole trader, they are often the only owner of the business, and so what they say goes. Because they own it, nobody has the authority to block or delay their decision. Whilst many may invite advice from the people they employ, they will often have an idea in their minds already about what they would like done, and so will probably just make the decision straight away themselves.

Advantages of the entrepreneurial business structure

The main advantage of the entrepreneurial business structure is the ability to make decisions quickly. Without lengthy meetings and discussions, or proposals sat waiting for approval, decisions can be made pretty much instantly and changes put into place. This allows businesses to quickly adapt to any change in market conditions. It is also a leadership style which is used by governments in emergencies, with virtually all countries having laws in place which allow legislation to bypass parliament or equivalent bodies and be enacted when speed and response time is top priority.

Another advantage is that it is one of the least expensive business structures available, and in most cases will be the cheapest option. This is because there are no layers of middle managers to pay or maintain (e.g. company cars).

Thirdly, everybody knows who is in charge and who they are accountable to, removing the chances of confusion being created if different department heads asked for different things from workers (e.g. the head of the production department asks workers to improve the quality of the product by spending more time on each, at the same time as the head of the finance department asks for increased output to generate more revenue).

Disadvantages of the entrepreneurial business structure

Despite its advantages, there are a number of disadvantages to the entrepreneurial business structure.

Because of its autocratic nature, with workers being told what to do with no input on the decision, there is …

So many people wish to start or buy a restaurant but don’t bother to push through with it because they don’t have enough cash. Not having enough cash to open a restaurant is not something that should stop you from realizing a dream. It is possible to start a business even if you only have very little money or no money at all.

There are things you can do to finance your dream business. Some veteran restaurateurs are able to open new restaurants, even if they have more than enough money. Ever heard of the expression “use other people’s money?” We can teach you how to buy a restaurant or start one from scratch on borrowed money. You will also learn how you can get that loan you need to capitalize your new business.

The first thing you need to do is to write a business plan. Writing a business plan not only makes it easier to plan your restaurant business, it is also needed in case you have to borrow money from a bank. Lending firms will require a business plan that shows that you can make your restaurant lucrative. Your lenders will want to see from your written plan that you know what your are getting into and that you have a solid strategy that will work.

Visit banks and lenders to apply for a loan. Bring copies of your business plan and other financial info. You will need to fill up application forms and give your financial details when you get there. Prepare a list of your assets and liabilities, these will tell your banker your net worth, which they also need for your application. Work with banks that will likely approve loans for small businesses. Apply for a small business loan.

If you plan to buy a restaurant, set aside 20% of the total value of the business you intend to purchase. Some banks will still prefer that you pay a portion of the whole amount. If you don’t have enough money saved up for the 20% down, you may try to get a home equity loan to get the value you need. Banks will want to see that you have your own money invested in the business to assure them that you will work hard to make the business work.

Another way to get money to buy a restaurant is to borrow from friends or relatives. You should still make it a legal business arrangement bound by a contract. Many friendships are ruined when this is taken for granted. Insist on binding your loan and repayment scheme with a legal contract even if some friends or family members don’t want to.

Get investment partners to raise capital. When choosing partners be sure that you don’t just get along personally but more importantly, that you and your partners have the same business goals and outlook. Once you find ideal business partners, discuss how work will be divided or how many percent in profits each partner gets. …

Fortunately, you can get your MBA online.

There are many reasons to get your degree through the Internet. For example, you can study at your own home and you will not have to move somewhere else. You may also have more freedom to continue working at your job and spend more time with your family and friends. For many people, studying through an Internet program is a great option.

When you study for your Masters in Business Administration, you will learn many different valuable skills. For example, you can learn about finance, accounting, management, human resources, and marketing. Some programs will allow you to specialize in a single area, while others may have a more broad approach.

When selecting a school through the Internet, there are several things that you will need to look for. One of the most important features to look out for is accreditation. You should not attend any school unless it has been fully accredited and you should ensure that your chosen program is also accredited.

To ensure that you select the best school for your needs, you should look at the types of classes that are on offer. Try to select a school that teachers classes which interest you. You should also research what the learning experience will be like. Find out what kind of technology is used to deliver your lectures and if the schedules are flexible.

You can learn a lot by getting your MBA online and get an edge over your competition in the job market. Be sure to consider all of your choices before choosing a school. …

There are a number of books, programs, and classes out there today offering to teach “technical writing.” Some of these are excellent; prepared by industry veterans who know what they’re doing. But some others are basically rehashing old “business writing” concepts and techniques under the guise of “technical writing.”

“So what?” you may ask, which is a fair question. And here is the answer: if you are seriously considering to go out there and find yourself a job as a “technical writer” then you need to have at least one technical document prepared according to industry standards and expectations. Business writing in general will of course help you communicate better and conduct your business more efficiently. That’s why it’s a good thing. But when it comes to finding a technical writing job, business writing won’t help you much. No recruiter will accept a business writing sample as a proof of your technical writing skills, especially in the hi-tech sector where I’ve been working for over 10 years now.

Business writing is all kinds of copy generated to administer, communicate with and control others in a work environment. It covers all office communications, and topics like how to write a memo; how to write an e-mail; how to prepare a report; how to write meeting minutes; all kinds of business letters, etc.

While helpful, such knowledge will not be enough to find a job in the highly competitive field of modern technical communications. Instead, what you need to learn is the kind of documentation generated every day in such hi-tech industries as software, hardware, networking, telecommunications, manufacturing, chemicals, finance, defense, etc.

Does your instructor help you learn what a “scope” document is, for example, and how it is written? How do you prepare and write “release notes”? What’s the crucial difference between an “interface guide” and a “procedural guide”? Do you know how to write a QCP for a defense contractor?

There are many other similar topics that a beginner needs to learn to prepare him or herself for a great career in technical writing. Once you know the crucial difference between “business writing” and “technical writing,” you can make a better decision as to which questions to ask before buying a technical writing book or registering in a technical writing program. That way you won’t waste your time, money and energy on a product or a program that won’t help you reach your main goal. As always the case, knowledge is power in this particular issue as well.…

In every financial accounting textbook, the authors explain in detail about "Users and Uses of Financial Accounting." Information such as cash flow statements, income statements, and balance sheets are important documents that are kept to ensure that the company is recording everything correctly. The users of this accounting information are divided into two categories, internal and external users.

The internal users of accounting information are the managers who organize, operate and plan daily business routine. They are directly affiliated with the company and use administrative accounting, which includes in-depth reports used to determine financial strengths and weaknesses. For example, internal users would include management, finance, marketing, and human resources. An example of a human resource manager would be that he or she has to ensure the rights of their employees by using wage information along with other data. Important questions arise with internal users. A question for a marketing manager would include, "What price for an Apple I Pad will maximize the company's net income?"

External users are groups of individuals that are outside organizations, and they use accounting to make financial decisions. An example of an external user would include a creditor, who uses accounting to evaluate the risks of granting credit. Taxing authorities, investors, and customers are also external users. External users would receive limited financial information from a company such as financial statements. These statements are the backbone of financial accounting and they give the external users enough information to inform them of the company's economic position. Assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses are of great importance to users of accounting information. For business purposes, it is customary to arrange this information in the format of four different financial statements; Balance sheet, income statement, retained earnings statement, and statement of cash flows.

The purpose of the income statement is to report the success or failure of the company's operations for a period of time. The income statement lists the company's revenues followed by it expenses. A key point to recall when preparing an income statement is that amounts received from issuing stock are not revenues, and amounts paid out as dividends are not expenses. Therefore they are not reported on the income statement. Retained earnings statement shows the amounts and causes of changes in retained earnings during the period. The time period is equivalent to the time covered on the income statement. Financial statement users can evaluate dividend payment practices by monitoring the retained earnings statement. Some investors seek companies that have a history of paying high dividends, while others seek companies that reinvest earnings to increase the company's growth.

The balance sheet is based on this equation: Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders Equity. This equation is referred to as the basis accounting equation. The balance sheet reports the company's assets, liabilities and owners equity. It is a financial window to the company at a specific point in time. Claims are divided into two categories: claims of creditors, which are called liabilities and claims of owners, which are …

Care must be taken in the designing and drafting of the joint venture agreement to clarify exactly who owns what

While joint ventures can propel growth, selection of the right partner matters a lot for the success of the venture. One needs to conduct rigorous research work to find the right partner and do proper due diligence. One can save time and money by partnering with an existing supplier, customer, investor or with someone you have met socially. In social media, too, look for companies which follow you, add you as a friend or visit the same pages as you as they can form an ideal partnership. Great care should be taken in the designing and drafting of the JV agreement to clarify exactly who owns what and when.

The process of finding JV partners is a tedious one. Much before you approach a prospective JV partner, due diligence is crucial. Most companies publish key financial data on their site and are available with the Registrar of Companies. On must download the latest set of accounts and analyze it. One can also look at the news to get the latest stories about your potential JV partner. If they’ve got any skeletons in their cupboard, you should be able to find out here.

Always make an enticing offer with your prospective partner and spell out the nitty gritties of the deal like finance, customers, intellectual property rights, legal issues with your target partner. When you come to draft the proposal, make sure you clearly state your aims and objectives. If the prospective JV partner accepts your offer, one must draw up an agreement which must include details, including the legal status of the JV, key aims and objectives, each party’s stake and investment, the structure and make-up of the management team, and plans for a future exit, if needed. Also, it is crucial to include details of any non-disclosure agreements.

The main reasons you may want to form a JV is that you want the backing of a high-profile partner who has resources available to him. This may be a large mailing list that can get massive exposure for your products very quickly or the proposed partner runs a forum and can advertise your product using a banner. Get started by making a list of everyone in your network who may be a potential JV partner, or who can introduce you to people that are potentially good partners. Brainstorm other people, companies, and websites that are reaching your ideal clients and complement what you offer.

As all businesses have strengths and weaknesses, it makes sense to look for a joint venture to fill in the weak spots. For instance, if your strengths are a strong customer list, good distribution channels, and specialized product line, then your JV partner must have products or services that would enable you to stimulate additional revenues from existing customers.

Always look for non-competing companies where both the parties can benefit from the exchange of leads or …

Equity finance means the owner, own funds and finance. Usually small scale business such as partnerships and sole proprietorships are operated by their owner trough their own finance. Joint stock companies operate on the basis of equity shares, but their management is different from share holders and investors.

Merits of Equity Finance:

Following are the merits of equity finance:

(i) Permanent in Nature: Equity finance is permanent in nature. There is no need to repay it unless liquidation occur. Shares once sold remain in the market. If any share holder wants to sell those shares he can do so in the stock exchange where company is listed. However, this will not pose any liquidity problem for the company.

(ii) Solvency: Equity finance increases the solvency of the business. It also helps in increasing the financial standing. In times of need the share capital can be increased by inviting offers from the general public to subscribe for new shares. This will enable the company to successfully face the financial crisis.

(iii) Credit Worthiness: High equity finance increases credit worthiness. A business in which equity finance has high proportion can easily take loan from banks. In contrast to those companies which are under serious debt burden, no longer remain attractive for investors. Higher proportion of equity finance means that less money will be needed for payment of interest on loans and financial expenses, so much of the profit will be distributed among share holders.

(iv) No Interest: No interest is paid to any outsider in case of equity finance. This increases the net income of the business which can be used to expand the scale of operations.

(v) Motivation: As in equity finance all the profit remain with the owner, so it gives him motivation to work more hard. The sense of inspiration and care is greater in a business which is financed by owner’s own money. This keeps the businessman conscious and active to seek opportunities and earn profit.

(vi) No Danger of Insolvency: As there is no borrowed capital so no repayment have to be made in any strict lime schedule. This makes the entrepreneur free from financial worries and there is no danger of insolvency.

(vii) Liquidation: In case of winding up or liquidation there is no outsiders charge on the assets of the business. All the assets remain with the owner.

(viii) Increasing Capital: Joint Stock companies can increases both the issued and authorized capital after fulfilling certain legal requirements. So in times of need finance can be raised by selling extra shares.

(ix) Macro Level Advantages: Equity finance produces many social and macro level advantages. First it reduces the elements of interest in the economy. This makes people Tree of financial worries and panic. Secondly the growth of joint stock companies allows a great number of people to share in its profit without taking active part in its management. Thus people can use their savings to earn monetary rewards over a long time.

Demerits of Equity Finance:

Commitment – This is an attribute necessary in every employee and leader. A committed person sees to the end what they were involved with in the beginning. A committed person gives it their all. People sometimes may not show some commitment if the direction and vision of the organization are not clear. People will certainly not commit to something they are not sure of. Commitment is almost similar to loyalty. When people buy-in to the vision and goals of the organization, they are likely to set aside their personal comfort and commit to the success and overall progress of the organization. When team members are committed to their tasks, completion and success is inevitable.

Company – This is a registered organization with employees and leaders. A company is also called an organization or a business. General structure of a company has Managing Director at the top (Chief Executive Officer) and below him/her are the individual departmental heads e.g. Sales and Marketing Director, Human Resources, Finance and Admin, Operations etc. A company is broken down into individual business units which seem independent but are actually interdependent on other departments. Companies’ existence is usually governed by the Companies Act of the country where the business is registered. See Business under the B Series. A company is also referred to as a corporate entity

Communication – The way we communicate internally and with external stakeholders is what normally divides successful companies from mediocre ones. If you cannot communicate with your employees about vision, targets etc, you should not expect miracles from them. If you can not be in touch with your customers and suppliers out there, no wonder you seem to be on an island of stagnation. Communication uses a channel which varies from print media to electronic media. More and more communication is now electronic as it is faster, less expensive and reaching a larger audience. Companies that have gone bankrupt can actually mention that because they failed to listen to the needs being communicated by their customer, they eventually ran out of business. Communication is a key for success.

Competition – When you have another company or individual offering services like the ones you offer they are considered your competition. You compete to win the heart of the customer. You compete for space, orders, attention etc. It is healthy to have competition. Your competition is not your enemy. It helps to keep your services in check. In situations where companies are a monopoly there is a general tendency to slip back, relax and assume business will always be there. This is why the same company will suffer the day a competitor comes onto the same market because customers never forget those that look after the diverse needs.

Confidentiality – Information in the organization has levels of exposure. Information that is for public consumption will be found in the press or on company noticeboards. Sometimes a bulk email may be sent to the whole organization. However certain sensitive information is just for …