How does a breathalyzer device work?
There are two technologies commonly used in breath alcohol testing: platinum fuel cell and semiconductor .
Platinum fuel cell breathalyzers are the 'gold standard' of hand-held alcohol testers for both personal and professional use. They are the choice of professional users such as law enforcement and serious personal users such as concerned parents and individuals who require measurement accuracy they can trust.
In fuel cell instruments, the breath is directed into a fuel cell with dual platinum electrodes where it is oxidized and generates electrical current. The higher the alcohol content of the breath, the greater the current output of the fuel cell. By deliberately measuring the current produced in the fuel cell, an accurate measure of breath alcohol content (BAC) is recorded.
How accurate are breathalyzer tests?
Platinum fuel cell technology, in combination with the advanced measurement algorithms that are used in professional units are extremely accurate and very reliable. Unlike semiconductor devices, platinum fuel cell technology reacts only to alcohol and not to other airborne substances such as gasoline, cigarette smoke, acetones and ketones. Contrary to popular myths, a precision fuel cell tester can not be fooled by inhaling instead of blowing, pennies in the mouth, gum or breath mints.
In alcohol testers, you get what you pay for. Semiconductor testers, while inexpensive, are not to be trusted. These testers can give positive alcohol readings even when no alcohol is present. Semiconductor testers require frequent re-calibration and have a short working life. Independent scientific testing has repeatedly found a wide variation in alcohol readings produced by the leading semiconductor devices when tested against a known alcohol concentration.
Are there any significant differences between the breathalyzer devices that law enforcers use versus the devices for sale to consumers?
Law enforcement breath testing is serious and important work requiring instruments of high precision and reliability. Fuel cell, rather than semiconductor technology, is used. LE units are rigorously tested and maintained to very high standards, and they are tested and approved to evidential standards by the Department of Transportation, as well as approved by each state.
Consumer breathalyzers must be cleared by the FDA to be legally sold in the US. The FDA does not require that consumer breath testers meet the same standards of accuracy and precision as required by law enforcement. This has allowed the proliferation of cheap and unreliable imports that probably do more harm than good.
What are some advantages to a consumer owning a personal breathalyzer?
Only a precision breath tester can provide an accurate measure of BAC at any point in time. Other techniques such as "drink tables" and "drink software" may be education but they are not reliable measurement tools. Only a good breathalyzer can account for the many variables affecting individual alcohol toxication, such as sex, age, percent body fat, health and how much alcohol was in the drink.
Useful consumer applications include:
Satellite television is rapidly gaining in popularity, and DirecTV is one of the major suppliers of satellite television. They mix together basic, local and premium stations, provide it in a digital format, so that even the toughest critics will be pleased. As if that was not enough, DirecTV has entered the high definition television market in a big way, incorporating digital video recording. So now you can receive the clearest, crispest visual images in television broadcasting, and add to that the option of freezing, saving, replying or rewinding any movie, sitcom, sporting event or other program.
When it comes to reviewing DirecTV HD DVR (digital video recording), you have to give a thumbs up to their selection of basic programming. You can access as many as 125 channels just through basic DirecTV. This includes all the important local channels, which are broadcast by DirecTV in most major US metropolitan areas. You also have access to around 30 premium movie channels, 36 commercial-free radio channels, and 60 pay per view movie options each month.
If you're into sport, then you can add DirecTV's dedicated SPORTS pack. This has something for everyone from a diehard sports fan to those interested in less prominent sports. You have a choice of more than 25 regional and specialty sports networks, which covers all the action in the NFL, NBA, NHL, MLB and most other major and minor sports league.
With the addition of a high definition (HD) receiver, you can experience television magic. Your satellite system will give you the best possible HD experience. Why not turn your living room into a high-tech movie theater, so that you can sit back and enjoy incredibly crisp images and the clarity of digital surround sound. With HD television, the images are so clear that you can see every wrinkle on your favorite actor's face, the beads of sweat on your sporting heroes, and the dimples of a golf ball in flight- well, almost!
It's no wonder that there's so many raving DirecTV HD DVR reviews. Now that you can access HD satellite broadcasts, nearly all of DirecTV's programming is available in HD, including premium channels, pay per view movies and sports channels. A lot of local channels are also available in HD, but it varies from region to region. …
Common wisdom tells us that a death of a loved one and moving house are the two most stressful events a person can go through in the modern world. Not being an estate agent or a funeral director, I can not really comment on either of these – but I do feel qualified to discuss another stressful area – planning a trip and preparing to go on holiday.
It's ironic that a period of the year designed to promote rest and relaxation can actually be the cause of the most stress and strain present for the entire year. Things are usually completed in a rush, there is a lot to organize and there's packing time to consider – and that's not even taking into account the stress families will go through looking after the kids during all of this! For this reason, I've written a useful holiday check list to ensure you do not miss any of the small things which have a tendency to turn into bigger problems while you're away.
Simply work through my holiday check list and travel with peace of mind:
Before you go (planning your trip)
Stress related illness and suffering is at an all time high in America and increasing every year. There are numerous symptoms commonly associated with stress such as sleeplessness, weight gain, hair loss, worry, irritability, muscular aches and pains, depression, weakened immunity and the list goes on. In our hectic, time strapped lives, it is easy to fall prey to stress without even knowing it.
Personal stress can be a result of relationship issues, family conflicts, financial concerns etc. Workplace stress can be due to too great a workload for the one person, low morale due to downsizing and cost cutting or tense personal relations with co-workers or superiors. With all these external factors playing a role it is important to identify and then adopt a plan of action for personal stress management.
Relaxation is an excellent natural way of combating the effects of stress. For instance physical activities like massage, acupuncture and even sexual activity can greatly relieve stress and help you relax, while reading positive stories, listening to relaxing music, watching non violent programs and movies are a more passive ways to achieve the same goal. It is also known that by incorporating a low-fat, low-salt diet and regular exercise into your personal stress management program, you can help reduce your level of stress.
It is always good to look at your lifestyle objectively to see if there are any simple lifestyle changes you can make to help alleviate your stress. Think carefully about the following points and try to make changes to some that are directly affecting your daily life. Self esteem, handling difficult situations, time management, problem solving, healthy eating, alcohol or drug use, healthy relationships, money management, physical activity, sleep, spirituality and time management.
There are also many medications that are prescribed to patients suffering from stress but like all medication, there is the possibility of numerous and sometimes serious negative side effect. There is a healthier alternative to use in your personal stress management program and that is herbal based supplements which work with your body in a more natural way.
Some of ingredients used in these supplements are Jujube which has been used in Chinese herbalism for the treatment of nervous exhaustion and irritability. Ashwagandha is an Ayurvedic adaptogen that helps the body better cope with stress and Passionflower which has a relaxing effect. This article is nutritional in nature and is in no way to be interpreted as medical advice. Always consult your doctor before embarking on a medical or nutritional plan.…
Life Insurance is a risk policy against death. It involves two parties, the insured and the insurer. The insured transfers a risk to the insurer. In return, the insured receives a policy and pays a pre-determined amount of premium for a set amount of time.
There are two kinds of life insurance policies – term life and permanent life. Further, permanent policies can be divided into whole, universal, limited-pay, endowment and incidental.
The kind of life insurance policies that is best suited varies from person to person. Purchasing life insurance is always recommended, but it is necessary to do some research about the various policies available to make sure you are getting the one that is best suited for you. Over-insurance, unsuitable life insurance and various other problems have made life insurance policies a pretty risky purchase.
One of the best ways to make sure that you are getting the right policy is to select a well-qualified life insurance company. Every life insurance company has various policies that cater to people from all walks of life.
One should think about various factors before opting for life insurance like time, monthly budget, liquidity and need of risk coverage before taking on any life insurance policy.
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, better known as MetLife is one of the oldest companies in the USA. MetLife is also one of the largest insurance companies in America.
The New York Life Insurance Company is another major player in the insurance market in the US. It was founded in 1841 under the name of Nautilus Insurance Company. It was renamed New York Live Insurance Company in 1845. It is the largest mutual life insurance company in the US. …
Experts have long debated just how big your professional network should be. Should you focus more on the quantity or quality of your relationships? The easy answer, of course, is "both." Unfortunately, though, there are only so many hours in the day. Building and maintaining relationships take time; Building stronger relationships takes more time.
Given that your time is limited, the number of your relationships and the average strength of your relationships end up being inversely proportional. The more people you know, the less well you know them. If you want to build stronger relationships, you're going to have to do so with a smaller number of people. You can spend all of your time with your close friends and family (strong ties, low number), or spread yourself thin across a wide number of people (weak ties, high number). However, maintaining both high strength and high number is physically impossible. How can you find the proper balance between strength and number?
This debate has been exacerbated by the proliferation of social networking sites that make it feasible to have a personal "network" of several thousand people. The leaders of some of the networks have taken some strong stands on the issue:
Those absolutes are difficult to sustain in practice. For example, LinkedIn very strongly positions itself on the quality of its membership and encourages members to focus on people you've worked with before in some capacity. Their tips on who to invite say:
But at the same time, the design of the site encourages people to maximize their number of connections. The more people you're directly connected to, the fewer number of degrees away you are from people, on average. With more direct connections, you can see more people, more people can see you, and you're more likely to come up at the top of searches, which by default order the results by "degrees away from you." The FAQ may encourage quality over quantity, but in practice, quantity is also rewarded. This is a fundamental tension in LinkedIn's design. What allows LinkedIn to still be a valuable application is that quantity also carries a cost: more link requests which you are likely to reject. Some of the …
Most people think that they will be lucky enough not to fall victim to an accident. But the truth is that accidents can and do happen to anyone at anytime – usually when least expected. For example, did you know that in the UK every year 2.7 million people turn up at hospital accident and emergency departments seeking treatment because of an accident at home. Or that nearly 4,000 people die each year in accidents at home *?
If you are unlucky enough to have an accident that results in a serious injury, you may not be able to return to work quickly. And, if you have to take an extended leave of absence from work, your income could suffer greatly. The good news is that personal accident plans can offer tax free, lump sum cash payments to help you out financially – if you've suffered from a loss of income or in some other way – should the unexpected happen.
Many insurers offer standard personal accident insurance policies; however, limited personal accident cover is also often included in motor and travel insurance policies. The benefits of standard policies are that the cash payments are larger and there are usually fewer restrictions. For example, if the cover is under your travel insurance, the accident must have occurred whilst traveling.
Personal accident plans typically provide cover for a range of injuries arising from accidents, including permanent disablement. This could include, but is not limited to, quadriplegia, paraplegia, total and permanent loss of use of one or two limbs and complete and irreversible loss of sight in one or both eyes. Some plans will also provide cover for fractures, dislocations and even burns.
Furthermore, if you have to spend time in hospital after an accident, some plans will also provide cash benefits for hospitalization as well. If an accident resolved in one of the above injuries, the cash payments could have been used towards the cost of replacing your lost income through to the cost of a holiday to aid in your recuperation.
Most accident plans will also include an accident death benefit providing a generous cash lump sum to your estate in the event of death caused by an accident, while plans only offering accident death benefits are also available. The amount paid can vary and often plans will have different levels of cover. Some plans even pay out different depending on the circumstances of the accident (ie accidental death as a result of a road traffic accident). Cash payments with this cover can help your family with the often unexpected financial burdens bought about from such things as a loss of income, funeral expenses and even to cover the potential impact on your loved ones' incoming during bereavement.
Innovation has played a part in the personal accident market with insiders targeting specific groups of people with different versions of personal accident plans . For example, as slips and trips are more common among individuals aged 60+, one insurer has offered …
In this article we would try to examine some of the benefits of a US bank account to a foreigner or non resident. Why is it that everywhere you go online now be it at the forums or search engines, you see a lot of folks looking for information on this?
This has led to a lot e-books on the topic. Many people are writing and selling this info online. Yours truly even wrote and sold one some few years back. We want to examine some of the reasons for the attraction. What is so unique or attractive that many people online are now trying to get a US bank account even if it is a basic one like a savings account?
In answering the question, I want to start by saying the internet has changed almost everything about the way we live. Gone re the good old day where it was okay to just live within the confines of your geographical locality. Not anymore! Everything has changed, thanks to the internet which has joined us all together to form the so called one global village.
In the past if you had a bank account in your locality, that was enough. Not anymore as you now could easily sell or work all over the world online via the internet. You could now set up a shop online and sell to people all over the world 24 hours a day, seven day a week and 30 days a month, in fact round the year.
With the above scenario, you need a financial system or solution outside of the one in your locality or country. You have now gone international. Here he need for an account with banks and financial institutions outside your country. When then US and not pother countries? The answer is very simple. The vast majority of online companies, those that matters are all based or headquartered in the US. Just take a look at the top 10 web companies from Google, eBay, Amazon, Facebook, Yahoo, all these are US based.
When you are online working, trading or doing business, you want to be working with the companies that matters. They are all based in the US. When it comes to pay you is when you realize the complexity of the whole thing if you do not have a presence or at least a bank account in the US.
Take for instance you sell online and get your card payments via any of the 3rd credit card payment processing companies like ClickBank, 2Checkout.com, Plimus.com, PayPal, SHARE-it.com, you need a US bank account so that you can Get your payment fast. They are all based in the US. Also take for instance that you are an Affiliate marketer, most of the Networks too like Amazon.com, Commission Junction, ClickBank, etc. Are all US companies.
The difference between obtaining paid via a US bank account or its alternative solutions and the customary method of being sent a check is about an interval …
Family money management is a central part of teaching kids and teens about money. Much of what kids learn in life lessons they get from watching others – especially what goes on in their own house. Having a good home money environment is another example of where this is especially true.
What are integral parts of family money management that can really help your kids grow in their own understanding of money?
Everyone in the house needs to understand that money is a just a tool. This applies to parents and kids. Money can become an emotional subject very quickly, so keeping any money discussions neutral is a key to moving forward. Here are some ways to get started.
There is a gap between the income level that makes a family eligible for Medicaid and the ability to afford private health insurance. What is the Children's Health Insurance Program? It is a way to make sure that no children fall through that gap.
The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) is a joint Federal and State funded health insurance designed to provide health insurance to children in families that do not qualify for Medicaid, but are still financially unable to afford private health insurance. The increasing cost of health care and the resulting increase in private health insurance premiums have created a "coverage gap" and Medicaid being a Government program is too often slow to respond.
This has left many children among the millions of uninsured Americans and this has been unacceptable. Children have special medical needs that include immunizations and dental care that is essential to give them a fair chance to grow into healthy adults. It is this assumed right of all children to have an equal opportunity for a healthy start to life that has led to many Government sponsored programs and the Children's Health Insurance Program is one of them.
The Insurance coverage provides funds to allow children to have medical treatments. It guarantees preventive medicine above all else. The coverage pays for routine checkups, dental examinations and cleaning, and immunizations. The funding is based on the Federal Government making matching contributions based on the contributions of the individual States. The Children's Health Insurance Program varies from State to State. Some States have already extended the program to include all children. Low income children get the insurance at no cost, and the rest have to pay only a small premium.
One of the best things about the Children's Health Insurance Program is the fact that it has focused so much on preventative medicine. Although hospitalization and all of the other standard and emergency treatments are covered, it is the idea of providing coverage that encourages routine checkups, immunizations, and dental examinations that have made the Children's Health Insurance Programs innovative in the Insurance Industry.
There has been a trend in private health insurance policies to adopt this prevention concept in its insurance coverage. The routine checkups and other procedures designed to prevent illness or discover it early are no longer excluded or subject to high deductibles when they involve children. It has been learned from the experience of the Children's Health Insurance Program that it is extremely less expensive to keep a child healthy than to pay for their treatment later. …