The study of business ethics and its implications for different stakeholders have seen tremendous growth in the past few decades. There has also been a rise in the use and development of codes of ethics and announcements for ethical practices by many firms; however companies are still criticized for their unethical practices at different levels (, 2006). Business ethics, according to the literature has been entrenched with the philosophical details of Ethics (Trevino & Nelson, 1999). Ethics has been defined as ‘the activity of examining the moral standards of a society, and asking how these standards apply to ones life and whether these standards are reasonable’ (Velasquez, 1998; p. 11).

The literature on business ethics is divided on its views about the motivation and reason for businesses to have an ethical dimension. Drawing upon Harrison (2001), there are two major schools of thoughts, firstly those who suggest that firms are profit generating institutions and therefore business ethics is yet another way to attract customers, secondly those who support corporate conscience and intrinsic motivation for the adoption of business ethics.

Business ethics has been considered very subjective in nature and according to Paul (2001) is considered a function of time and culture. It has been established that with the passage of time business ethics have evolved and also that the cultural values and norms drive business ethics within national and regional boundaries. One of the major studies regarding the national values has been conducted by Hofstede (1983). According to this research, which was only based on four indicators i.e. individualism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, there is a great deal of differences among values across different nations and consequently the business ethics. Globalization combined with standardization has made businesses financially efficient but at the same time poses questions regarding the standardized codes of business ethics across national boundaries.

Vinten (1991) has divided the business ethical issues at different levels i.e. international business, domestic business and professional ethics. At the international level ethical issues include free-masonry and socialism versus capitalism; at domestic level these include religious dimensions, social marketing and ethical education; and lastly at the individual level these include bribery, corruption and data protection (, 2006).

There are many reasons and criticisms for the failure of adoption of ethics in the business world. Firstly, the concept is considered to be overly theoretical and it also negates the basic purpose of any business i.e. to create shareholder’s wealth. Secondly, it has lack of direction and unanimity across different cultures and academic groups. Lastly, it has many inherent unresolved dichotomies that according to Sternberg (1994) make it a case of rejected relativism.


Harrison, J. (2001), Ethics for Australian Business, Prentice-Hall, French’s Forest

Hofstede, G. (1983), The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.75-89

Papers For You (2006) “S/B/92. What distinguishes ethical from unethical business activity and how significant are the principles of business ethics in modern business?”, Available from [17/06/2006]…

Pre-production is the most important time for any director because it is the where we go through a “process of discovery.” Here is an overview of what is expected of a director during pre-production. Please keep in mind that all these pre-production activities will vary in time and importance depending on whether you are shooting a film or TV.

(1) Location Scouting

Location scouting is one of the first activities you will be doing in the pre-production stage of filmmaking. Once you have decided on what kind of look you require for the film, a search is then begun for suitable locations.

Who goes on location scouts: Director, Location Manager, 1st Assistant Director, Producer, Production Manager or Unit Production Manager, Production Designer or Art Director, Transportation Captain or a Driver

(2) The Budget

During script development, filmmakers produce a rough budget to convince film producers and film studios to give them a green light for production. During pre-production, a more detailed film budget is produced. This document is used to secure financing.

A budget is typically divided into four sections: Above the Line (creative talent), Below the Line (direct production costs), Post-Production (editing, visual effects, etc), and Other (insurance, completion bond, etc).

The Director should also understand the budget. You should know where you can make suggestions on what elements to take out – and on what to add in.

(3) Casting

When a director first starts prep, you read the script through several times to get a feel for what the story is about and who the characters are. You then have a meeting with the Producer(s) and the Casting Director to discuss their ideas of the characters.

This is an important meeting for the Director, because it’s where you find out what the Producer(s) are thinking and if they are on the right track.

After the meeting, the Casting Director puts together a list of actors that fit the character traits and specific looks discussed in the meeting with the Producer(s).

The Casting Director then has her/his own casting session where they record a “short list” of actors for the director and the Producer(s) to view.

A Director never has enough time to work with the actors in a casting session, so here are the 3 most important qualities you look for when auditioning actors:

1. Do they look the part?

2. Do they have range?

3. Can they take direction?

(4) Meetings, Meetings and More Meetings

The Director will have many meetings during pre-production. These meetings are scheduled by the AD Department and range from script meetings and concept meetings with the producers to individual department head meetings.

The director should have the following meetings:

– concept meeting with producers/location manager/art director

– script meeting with producers and writer

– casting meeting with producers and casting director

– Director and 1st Assistant Director meetings

– costumes

– props

– set dec

– special FX

– stunts

– extra casting

– transportation

– animals

– visual FX

– …

You can work less hard and make more money from home on the internet. You do not need to know everything to run an online business. You only need a good marketing system that is able to help you to run your business on autopilot. First you have to find a high demand product that people want to buy, write some articles, create a one squeeze page (a one page website that use to collect the email of your potential customers), and get a follow up system. These components are parts of a marketing system.

You should invest some time and a little effort initially when looking for a hot product to promote. This is how you can find a good product to promote, go to Clickbank (an affiliate program that allow you to promote other people product) look for a product in the relevant category that you are going to promote, look out the one with a high gravity point. A product with the highest gravity meaning it is the best seller. Choose the one with gravity point of no less than 100 that should be able to sell pretty well. Keep in mind that you only need one product to promote do not try to catch two rabbits at once otherwise you will get no where.

You need to pre-sell the product by writing some review or articles that is based on the product features and benefits. Do not try to sell the product to your first visitor, let alone the merchant sale page do the selling. Before you choose a product make sure you read the sale page and understand its feature and benefit. Visit some forums to learn other people feedbacks whose has purchased the product. Try to put yourself in the shoe of these people who bought the product and understand the reason why they want to buy it.

Set up a website or squeeze page to collect your first time visitors name and email. A good marketing system should also include a free squeeze page for you to use. You do not need to hire anyone to do it you can do it easily by yourself even without computer background. A squeeze page can be created by click and paste of your mouse.

Email marketing is essential component of a marketing system. It is also part of a squeeze page that used to collect your visitor contact information in exchange for free information that you offered. First you need to get an auto-responder in order to collect name and email from your visitors. An auto-responder is usually run on automatic it follows up with your visitor by sending them new information via email regarding their field of interest. You only need to write a few email messages and set the date you want your email to arrive in their inbox. Remember do not send spam messages otherwise you are not going to get any sale.

These 4 components are part of a powerful marketing …

The internet can be your best friend if you are single and are looking for a suitable life partner for yourself. By registering with an internet dating agency, you can get to know a wide variety of individuals from all over the world who have posted their profiles on the dating site. If a profile looks interesting you can contact the person by email and also chat online.

Searching For A partner Can Be Done Confidently

Internet dating agencies have many boons. First of all, your time, energy and money can be saved. You do not have to go through the ordeal of meeting someone you do not know well. In internet dating, you can take your time to know a person well via email or online chatting. Only when you are satisfied should you arrange to meet him or her with the other's permission.

One of the greatest advantages is that you can keep your search a secret as no third party is involved. Internet dating is especially good for single people who are shy or have some inhibitions in interacting face to face with people of the opposite sex.

Also your money is saved in many ways. On a real date even if you do not like the person you will have to spend some money at least on coffee – leave alone the precious time that is wasted in the process. In online dating you are the master of both your time and money.

Online Dating Is Possible Round The Clock

Nowadays, real marriage bureaus charge a lot of money and although you might find a good partner through such agencies, you may have to make yourself available according to their timing. On the other hand, not only do internet dating agencies charge a smaller fee, time is not a problem either as online agencies are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Some dating websites may even allow free membership and charge a fee later when you like a profile and want further details from the site. However, once you like someone's profile you must verify the details to ensure that they are genuine. Also register with a reputed and reliable internet dating agency which ranks high in the search list. …

Those who are looking for a brand new way to make money online should check out the new product called “Cell Phone Cash” by Mack Michaels. Unlike many other programs that teach the same old stuffs like how to make money blogging, AdSense, pay-per-click, etc…. this system teaches you how to make money with your mobile phone.

But it’s NOT about teaching you how to sell handphones on the Internet! Cell Phone Cash is a step-by-step video coaching course that teaches you how to make money leveraging the power of cell phones by promoting products and services to the mobile users.

As you know, the mobile phone market is huge and very lucrative. Nowadays, there are over 3 Billion people around the the world who own at least one cell phone and the number is keep increasing. There is no sign that the growth is going to stop any time soon. In fact, the market is just keep growing. There is tremendous income potential in the mobile industry because the market is pretty much untapped and there is literally no competition.

The Cell Phone Cash coaching course consists of 7 modules. Each module builds upon the next to ensure that you understand the whole process and how everything is connected to each other.

In a nutshell, here are some of the things you’ll learn inside the Cell Phone Cash coaching course:

* Exploring the mobile industry

* Analyzing the income potential

* Setting your personal income goals

* Identifying your income sources

* Reverse engineering the competitors

* Creating your content

* Using the proven marketing methods to dominate the mobile industry

* Fast action to make money in the next 48 hours

* How to make 7 figures in the mobile industry by applying what you learn in this course

* and much more…..

The thing I like best about this course is that there is zero fluff. Right from module 1, the author reveals the fast action guide and shows you how to use it to start earning some money in the next 48 hours. If you join Cell Phone Cash, make sure you implement the fast action guide. I have tried it and it works very well for me.

The only qualm I have for this product is that there is a recurring monthly fee of $25. But I think this is a small price to pay because you’re going to get new strategies and methods to help you dominate the mobile phone market every week. So for me, I treat the monthly fee as a small business expense.


Cell Phone Cash is a very unique money-making coaching course. Unlike other internet marketing courses that teach the usual stuffs like blogging, PPC, AdSense or article marketing, CPC shows you how to dominate a huge yet under-penetrated mobile market. This is the first time I came across an internet marketing course that teaches people how to promote products and services to mobile users. This course is worth …

There are so many products and services that an individual can make money with as an affiliate. What have you got to lose by trying to promote them all?

One mistake that really dilutes the effectiveness of most affiliate marketers is taking the scattergun approach to affiliate marketing.

Let’s define scattergun for a moment. Scattergun: Covering a wide range in a haphazard or ineffective manner.

The scattergun approach is very similar to the “throw enough stuff up against the wall and see what sticks mentality” that plagues so many who are desperate to earn income on the internet.

Here’s why this approach doesn’t work. First of all, if you continually promote products and services that are in direct competition with each other, which one is the best?

This puts your subscribers in a quandary when it comes to making a decision that’s best for them. The usual result… no decision at all.

Another reason why the scattergun approach is ineffective with affiliate marketing is because it will do more to tear down your credibility as a reliable and trusted source for product recommendations than anything else.

It’s one thing to promote products and services that are related to one another as well as offer relevant value to your readers and subscribers, but to promote every product as being the best is definitive enough to warrant the action you’re looking for and that is a sale.

The best way to set up an effective sales funnel that will result in profits for your affiliate business is to find out what it is people are interested in, what they WANT and then locate other related or complimentary products that will help them to achieve their goals.

Take the time to educate and inform your prospects about the products your recommending and give them a solid direction to go in and your results will speak for themselves.…

A few years ago I attended a workshop at the International Coach Federation conference in Atlanta. Jack Canfield, co-author of the Chicken Soup for the Soul book series, was speaking. He had us fill out a worksheet that detailed what we did each hour in our business day, for each day of the week. Then he had us place a dollar value on each activity. For example, what would filing paperwork cost if we had to pay someone. The third step was to add up the hours that we sent on actual revenue generating tasks and how much they were worth.

It was an awful surprise when I applied the formula to calculate how much I lost each year by doing the work someone else could do for me. According to that figure, by trying to save money and do everything myself, I was LOSING $ 25,000 per year!

We can see through this example how NOT to use leveraged action. I thought I was saving money by doing the work myself, but in reality I was using time more profitably creating more income-generating ideas. Doing those tasks alsoave me an excuse to not take action on my new ideas. That was a wake-up call for me.

To gain momentum, you have to take action, and the more you tap into other resources as you do that, the faster your results will appear. Once you start, you begin to attract the people and resources that will propel you forward.

Waiting until everything is perfect keeps you from finding out your next step. You'll spend all of your time fixing things without knowing if they will ever work.

So start. How do you do that?

1. Run, do not walk when you have a new idea.

2. Take massive action. What appears to be pure coincidence but is really things happening at the same time in parallel begin to occur. You have to be okay with chaos.

3. Make your action simultaneous, not sequential. There are four "Step 1's". Do not work linearly. Begin all things, work each of them, and run them through to completion.

4. Do it before you are "ready". As one of my mentors says, "Ready, Fire, Aim." Start without knowing. It's easier to clean up a mess than to start.

5. Leverage every asset you have:

– Other people's experience: If you are not a bookkeeper and have to learn how to run an accounting program, the learning curve plus the time you spend entering data will add up. Tasks like this may not be cheaper in the present, but they will be cheaper in the long run.

– Expertise: Do what you love and let others do what they love. Doing more of what you do well will soon make you a master at it. By focusing on your area of ‚Äč‚Äčexpertise, your knowledge becomes more valued and you become an expert.

– Connections: By joining associations, creating alliances, and participating in mastermind groups you …

Do you think you really know how to shop? How do you calculate how much you pay the next time you take a loan? Do you have a system whereby you know how much is it that you can afford the next time you buy a car or a house?

You just bought a car. The installation is around $ 650 a month and you are determined that you can afford to pay the installation. You calculated the interest rate, term of loan and depreciation value and you are very sure that you can afford to maintain the car. After six months driving your car, you feel the pinch of paying your installation and you have a lot of bills, parking tickets and fines that you have not settle.

What do you do after this? You spend less, you travel less to save on your petrol and when all else fails, you decide to sell the car. However, you still have to carry on driving the car because you still have not breakeven your loan wit the finance company. For all you know, you are stuck with your car and financial problem start coming in like termites. Does this sound like you or at least sound like someone that you know?

I am not here to tell you not to buy a car or to nag you that made the wrong choice buying the car. I am not even here to tell you to avoid taking loans and to buy your car in full cash. However, what I am going to do is to teach you how to calculate whether you can afford or not.

You may think that I am talking nonsense and that I do not do a thorough research on this topic. Well, think again. It's because I see this problem too often that thought about it for three days in a row and try to think of a way to tell people on how to calculate the right way. A method a nine year old will know how to apply!

The method that I am going to share with you is simply what I call the 'Percentage Calculator TM'. Let me share with you how. Human beings are better at number 0 to 100. What a better way to calculate everything in percentage. If you say $ 2500 (100%), savings is $ 500 (20% of income), expenditure including mortgage or rental is $ 1500 (60% of income), you are only left with 20% of your income that is $ 500.

With 20% of your income left, and knowing that you expenditure is kept at the minimum, do you want to buy a car still? You may disagree with me and tell me that with $ 500 you can still afford to pay your monthly installments. I totally agree with you but does this mean you would give up your shopping, holidays and entertainment? So, my advice is, the next time you buy something in installment or …

Are you looking to become a guitar reseller or open a guitar store?

I can tell you from experience that selling guitars is a fun and rewarding business to pursue. I love meeting musicians, helping to spread the music, and frankly, I just love being around guitars. Here are a few things to keep in mind if you’re learning how to sell guitars:

Business Licensing/Taxes

The first thing to keep in mind when selling anything in large quantities is business licensing and taxes. First, make sure you keep a record of everything you’ve sold. When it comes time to pay taxes, you’ll need to know the exact nature of the business you’ve done. One of the biggest worries with a start-up reselling business is getting audited by the IRS. In the event of an audit, the more information you can provide the better. As you begin to make a modest profit from reselling, make sure to set money aside for taxes. In many states, the buyer is required to pay sales tax for each transaction, and it’s the seller’s responsibility to set this money aside at the time of the transaction.

You will also need to obtain a business license. These are easy to acquire in most states for a small fee. In many states, a reseller business license will come with a Reseller Permit, with which one is able to purchase in bulk without having to pay a state sales tax. If you start selling a lot of guitars, such as more than 5 per month, then you should seriously consider obtaining a business license. Along with helping your business to be more accountable, it often earns you special rights and tax breaks that will help your business grow.

Finding Your Niche

There are many ways to sell guitars. Websites like Craigslist and eBay are great places to sell guitars, but they often have plenty of competition. Depending on where you’re located, Craigslist might be a great way to spread the word locally. There are many people who are good at repairing, modifying, or parting out guitars (taking them apart and selling the parts separately). Your “niche” will depend partially on your location, but mainly it will depend on your passion. If you love talking to people in a private setting, Craigslist might be your best bet. If you love tinkering with and parting out guitars, you could consider selling parts on eBay, or to a local music shop. If you love the idea of opening up a storefront, or augmenting one you may already own with some quality guitars, maybe you’re meant to be a guitar salesman. If you don’t know which method will work best for you, it can never hurt to try things out. You’ll never know if you don’t try!

Opening a Guitar Store

Opening a guitar store can be a huge challenge, but it can also be very rewarding. With the recent interest in the internet and online retail, many guitar shops are going …

Having a mentor can mean the difference between success and failure if you want to have a successful Internet home business.

Many of you have dreamed of owning your own Internet business, and have probably been involved in countless opportunities, and succeeded at none. Many fail on the Internet because they’re unwilling to put their time into it, but many fail because they don’t know what to do. They don’t know how to get started, what opportunities to join, which ones that work, and the main thing is that they don’t know how to promote their business.

The Internet is creating millionaires out of everyday people who have no education and no money to invest, unlike the traditional businesses of today. And although I don’t have exact statistics, I would bet that 95% of these Internet millionaires had a mentor to help them develop a business plan and show them the ropes. The other 5 percent had the persistence and the tenacity of a Bulldog, and more than likely went through many trials and errors.

If your seriously looking for a way to improve your finances, spend more time with your family and enjoy the many perks that a home business can provide, don’t just sign up for any program. Contact the Webmaster and find out how much experience they have, and find out if they are willing to mentor you.

Please don’t waste anyone’s time if your not willing to spend at least 3-5 hours a week building your business with their help, and please don’t waste anyone’s time if your not willing to spend $20-$30 dollars on a website. There is virtually no financial investment to get started on the Internet, but if your not willing to make the small investment for a website, then your really not committed to having a business anyway.

And if you have never built a website before, don’t worry…if you can do minimal things such as type, copy, paste and send an email, you can build a website.

So yes, I believe that with the right mentor, you CAN start up an Internet business and be very successful. Don’t do it for me, do it for yourself and your family.

Best wishes for your future success and prosperity!…