March 8, 2017

MONEY WITHOUT MATRIMONY: The Unmarried Couples Guide to Financial Security, Sheryl Garrett and Debra Neiman, Dearborn Trade Publishing. Paperback $21.95 (248p) ISBN 1-4195-0688-9)

Who knew? If you were in a heterosexual relationship and got married, there would be 1,143 federal laws that protect your personal finances. But since that’s not the case for the 1.2 million gay and lesbian couples in America, out lesbians and Certified Financial Planners Sheryl Garrett and Debra Neiman have written Money Without Matrimony to help answer the hard financial planning questions. This well-written book helps gay and lesbian couples “plan around” the federal laws that negate right of survivorship benefits for same sex couples when tragedy arises like the illness or death of a partner. According to Garrett and Neiman, “If you want your partner or someone other than your parents or next of kin – no matter how distant a blood relationship – to sort through your possessions, inherit or distribute your stuff, the situation is far more complicated” than if you were married. Aside from looking at doomsday scenarios the book lays out everyday decisions that both short- and long-term couples should be thinking about like whether or not to merge finances, deciding how property should be rented and owned and the ramifications of each decision. Using easy-to-understand, accessible language, the authors have written a book that is a quick read or an easy reference guide to answer financial questions on the fly. While this book covers some of the same legal ground that can be found in other books on the topic, Money Without Matrimony picks up where the others left off with savvy personal finance advice in addition to legal advice. Filled with sage advice from financial professionals about the unique financial planning issues gay and lesbian couples face, this book forces partners to ask the questions they need to answer until (if) they receive full legal marital rights.…

INTERNATIONAL CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

International Economics or international business has two parts – International trade and International Capital. International capital (or international finance) studies the flow of capital across international financial markets, and the effects of these movements on exchange rates. International capital plays a crucial role in an open economy. In this era of liberalization and globalization, the flows of international capital (including intellectual capital) are diverse and diverse across countries. Finance and technology (eg internet) have gained more mobility as factors of production especially through the multinational corporations (MNCs). Foreign investments are increasing significantly even for the emerging economies like India. This is in-keeping with the trend of international economic integration. A Peter Drucker rightly says, "Increasingly world investment rather than world trade will be driving the international economy". Therefore, a study of international capital movements is much rewarding both theoretically and practically.

Meaning of International Capital
International capital flows are the financial side of international trade. Gross international capital flows = international credit flows + international debt flows. It is the acquisition or sale of assets, financial or real, across international barriers measured in the financial account of the balance of payments.

Types of International Capital
International capital flows have through direct and indirect channels. The main types of international capital are: (1) Foreign Direct Investment (2) Foreign Portfolio Investment (3) Official Flows, and (4) Commercial Loans. These are explained below.

Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI) refers to investment made by foreigner (s) in another country where the investor holds control over the investment, ie the investor obtains a lasting interest in an enterprise in another country. Most concretely, it may take the form of buying or constructing a factory in a foreign country or adding improvements to such a facility, in the form of property, plants, or equipment. Thus, FDI may take the form of a subsidiary or purchase of stocks of a foreign company or starting a joint venture abroad. The main feature of FDI is that 'investment' and 'management' go together. An investor's earnings on FDI take the form of profits such as dividends, retained earnings, management fees and royalty payments.

According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the global expansion of FDI is currently being driven by over 64,000 transnational corporations with more than 800,000 foreign affiliates, generating 53 million jobs.

Various factors determine FDI – rate of return on foreign capital, risk, market size, economies of scale, product cycle, degree of competition, exchange rate mechanism / controls (eg restrictions on repatriations), tax and investment policies, trade polices and barriers If any) and so on.

The advantages of FDI are as follows.
1. It supplements the meagre domestic capital available for investment and helps set up productive enterprises.
2. It creates employment opportunities in diverse industries.
3. It boosts domestic production as it generally comes in a package – money, technology etc.
4. It increases world output.
5. It ensures rapid industrialization and modernisation especially through R & …