Updated on August 10, 2017 by admin
In “Constraints to Leisure,” Edgar L. Jackson and David Scott provide an overview of the field of leisure constraints research as of the late 1990s. They point out that originally researchers in the field studies what was then called “barriers to recreation participation,” but the word “barriers” refers to what is now considered only one type of constraint – something that intervenes or prevents one from participating in an activity. But now other kinds of constraints are recognized, including one’s interpersonal and intrapersonal influences, which lead one not to take part in leisure. In additional, Jackson and Scott explain that the word “leisure” is used rather than just recreation, since it is a more inclusive term, and the word “participation” was also dropped, since leisure research doesn’t only involve whether a persona participates, but what they prefer to do, where, and what a particular type of leisure means to them.
Jackson and Scott also discuss the three major ways of looking at leisure that have evolved since the leisure constraints approach began in the 19th century. It began with considerations of “barriers to recreation participation and leisure enjoyment” based on the assumption that the main issue to address was service delivery, so that people would participate more if there were more services provided.
Then, starting in the 1960s, the focus shifted to looking at how particular barriers might affect the participation by individuals with different economic and social characteristics. Later, in the 1980s, the notion of constraints emerged, and the researchers realized that these constraints might not only be external, such as in the form of a facility or service, but could be internal, such as a constraint due to psychological and economic factors, or to social or interpersonal factors, such as a person’s relationships with his or her spouse or family.
Since the late 1980s, it would seem that three major concepts about the constraints affecting involvement in leisure activities have emerged, as described in a model proposed by Crawford and Godbey in 1987.
1) The structural or intervening constraint is one which affects someone from participating in some type of leisure, once the person already has indicated a preference for or desire to participate. As conceptualized by Crawford and Godbey, these structural or intervening constraints are “those factors that intervene between leisure preference and participation.” (p. 307). Research based on this conception of a constraint generally involves doing a survey to identify the particular items standing in the way of participation, such as time, costs, facilities, knowledge of the service or facility, lack of a partner for participation (such as a partner to participate in a doubles tennis match), and a lack of skills or a disability. The assumption underlying this approach is that a person would participate in any activity if not for these constraints, which seem much like the barriers conceived of when that term was in use. In looking for patterns and commonalities, using various quantitative methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis, researchers …
Updated on August 10, 2017 by admin
Isn’t it funny how many cliches can be associated with insurance? I think when a couple of sayings and anecdotes were invented; the inventors had the term insurance in mind!
Have a look at a couple of the following sayings and tell me if you agree…
Nothing is certain, but death and taxes. This can be changed to – nothing is certain, but death and insurance. No matter who we are, what we do, how much money we have or which car we drive… we need insurance!
All is fair in love and war. Once again, this can be changed to “all is fair in love and insurance.” Don’t you agree that we are at the mercy of insurance companies? What they say is law and we have to just sign on the dotted line and accept the fact that we are paying tons of money each month on something that we do not really want. Do not accept the first quote that you are offered. Shop around until you find a policy that you are completely satisfied with. Do not allow any broker, agent or insurance company to force you into taking a policy that you are not happy with.
He has been taken for a ride – he has been taken for an insurance ride! It’s unfortunate to hear how many insurance companies take their clients and customers for a ride. This is usually by means of not wanting to pay out a claim, increasing premiums drastically, or other matters that we have no control over. Always read the fine print before signing any insurance document. By having a good understanding of what your insurance policy entails, a lot of this can be prevented.
A chain is only as strong as its weakest link – An insurance company is only as strong as its weakest link. When wanting to obtain insurance, make sure that you talk to an agent or a broker who knows what they are doing! The worst thing in the world is dealing with an insurance reseller who has only one thing on the mind and that is to meet their monthly sales targets. Insurance is a very important investment; therefore it is crucial that a qualified professional takes care of your needs and requirements.
A good beginning makes a good ending. Change this to “a good insurance company makes a good ending” and you will be one of the many individuals who are satisfied with the service received from their insurance companies. If a company offers outstanding service and handles queries and claims effortlessly, even a burglary or an accident can have a good ending.
After a storm comes a calm. If you can change this saying to “after an insurance claim, comes a calm” – congratulations! That means that you have recently put in a claim and that it was handled successfully, enabling you to relax after everything has been taken care of.
I hope you have enjoyed this tongue in the cheek …